West Bailey Corfe Day 2 Ben’s Bottle

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Today, Andy brought up the gazebo, bollards and information sign and we broke open the string and 6 inch nails and marked out the two trenches.

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Dry and hot and the ground was hard but Ray soon had a crowd round the information table and Nancy’s National Trust archaeology badges were flying off the shelf. Ben asked if he could help and spent the day with us.

Trenches A and B hoping to pick up the line of the wall.

Trenches A and B hoping to pick up the line of the wall.

We came down onto a limestone rubble layer beneath the topsoil and were excited to find medieval pot fragments but they were mixed with silver paper, bottle tops, a sticking plaster (yuk) and then Ben found a rounded brown shape amongst the stones. It came out whole. There in his hands was a c.1950s SCHWEPPES bottle. Probably one of the 1952 RCHM diggers who had a lemonade and chucked it in the spoil heap as the trench was backfilled. Ben’s dad brought us drinks which were greatly appreciated.

Ben's 62 year old Schweppes bottle.

Ben’s 62 year old Schweppes bottle.

At the end of the day we hit a solid stone and then two more and it seems that we have found the top of the wall we were looking for. We’ll find out tomorrow..

A line of stones in the trench nearest to the camera. It is in line with the 13th century wall so perhaps we have found what we're looking for.

A line of stones in the trench nearest to the camera. It is in line with the 13th century wall so perhaps we have found what we’re looking for.

Remote Sensing in Corfe’s West Bailey

Thomas Bond of Tynham first dug in the West Bailey. Writing in 1883 he said “Some diggings which, by kind permission of the owner, W.R.Bankes Esq. I have recently made within the castle, have brought to light some curious facts, which afford much food for conjecture.” Next to investigate the area were scholars of the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments in 1949-52.

One of the 11th century windows in the West Bailey later blocked by the construction of 13th century curtain wall in King John's reign.

One of the 11th century windows in the West Bailey later blocked by the construction of 13th century curtain wall in King John’s reign.

This year we are reopening one of their trenches and seeing whether the wall that was found over 60 years ago continues north to join the curtain wall. If foundations exist, the footings may be able to act as a foundation for a revetment wall which will even up the slope and limit further erosion

The last few lines of the resistivity survey at the west end of the West Bailey

The last few lines of the resistivity survey at the west end of the West Bailey

The plan of the West Bailey. The area of the geophysical survey today. The site of tomorrow's excavation is at the top of the long black wall pointing to the top of the page. Did it once continue right across the West Bailey.

The plan of the West Bailey. The area of the geophysical survey today. The site of tomorrow’s excavation is at the top of the long black wall pointing to the top of the page. Did it once continue right across the West Bailey.


Our first task was to try to detect the buried walls using geophysics. Both resistivity and magnetometry were used. It’s not a big area.. about 60m long and narrowing from 20m at the east end to less than 10m in the west.

A hot sunny day as we pushed our wheelbarrow loaded with gear up through the potters and weavers of the craftsmen village in the Outer Bailey ..up through the South West Gatehouse and into the West Bailey.

A busy day with lots of interested people from Europe and USA mixed with the Brits asking us about the survey and the Castle’s history. Quite a few student groups led by their guides. We wove backwards and forwards with our machines making the survey but we completed it in good time. We will mark out the trenches tomorrow.

Welcome to the Constable’s House, Corfe Castle

The National Trust SW is in the midst of CBA Archaeology Festival.

Corfe Castle from the village of Kingston to the south. A view from Kingston on Purbeck's limestone plateau.

Corfe Castle from the village of Kingston to the south. A view from Kingston on Purbeck’s limestone plateau.

Tomorrow we are in the West Bailey, Corfe Castle. A geophysical survey and evaluation excavations are needed and have been saved for the Festival.

We are trying to solve an erosion problem while discovering more about the Constable’s House in the West Bailey.

Erosion in the West Bailey. Is this area part of the Constable's House?

Erosion in the West Bailey. Is this area part of the Constable’s House?

The Constable was the baron appointed by the King to oversee his magnificent castle of Corfe and administer justice in the Isle of Purbeck. We have the names of many of the prominent men of the time who were appointed to the position of Constable at various times from 11th-16th centuries. The Constable’s house would have been high status accommodation but it changed greatly in form and plan during 500 years as fashions and architecture changed.

The King’s apartments, when he visited, were at the top of the Castle in the Inner Ward but the Constable is thought to have lived in the Middle Ward or West Bailey.

His house can now only be seen in fragments of walls..what remains of the rest of the site lies below the ground.

We’ll let you know how we get on as the work progresses.. but if you’re in the area come along and visit.

18th Century Water Management at Stourhead

Last week I was asked to look at something that had been found behind the garden lake dam at Stourhead, Wiltshire. It’s a short ride from Warminster, skirting the Longleat Estate’s Sheerwater, past Maiden Bradley through the chalk ridge and back into Greensand country.

The view from Stourton village would once have been along the stream but this was blocked in the mid 18th century to create a lake. One of the Neo-classical garden buildings, the Pantheon is under repair at the moment. The dam lies to the left.

The view from Stourton village would once have been along the stream but this was blocked in the mid 18th century to create a lake. One of the Neo-classical garden buildings, the Pantheon is under repair at the moment. The dam lies to the left.

At Stourton church there’s the amazing view past the Bristol cross, across the turf bridge and lake to the Pantheon. This Neo-classical temple folly is under scaffold at the moment, the portico has been leaking and needs to be made water tight again. The view looked particularly beautiful in the early morning light.

Behind the Stourhead garden lake dam where the track had subsided. The drain was found beside the vehicles.

Behind the Stourhead garden lake dam where the track had subsided. The drain was found beside the vehicles.

I drove round the lake under the Rock Arch and took a right behind the dam. Half way along was some fencing across the track which divides the Garden Lake from the Turner’s Puddle Lake. I was told that the track had subsided into something. They had dug down 2.6m and found a collapsed stucture. A brick arch over a culvert lined with Greensand blocks and floored with blue lias flagstones. Nicely made but now blocked with silt.

The well-built brick lined drain 2.6m  below the track surface.

The well-built brick lined drain 2.6m below the track surface.

One idea was that it was built in the mid-18th century to carry the River Stour during the original construction of the lake for Henry Hoare. It was certainly of that date but may have been designed as a drain to let the water out when needed. This would transfer the water from Garden Lake to Turner’s Puddle Lake and enable de-silting and repair of the lake from time to time. I walked down to Turner’s Puddle lake edge and saw that the culvert outlet had been exposed as part of the work.

Water management at Stourhead is often needed. If silts build up, the lake depth is too shallow, the water becomes too warm in the summer and algae and other vegetation begins to close over the water and spoil the view. The Nautical Archaeological Research group dived on the lake bed a few years ago to map submerged structures and carried out a sonar scan of the lake bed for the National Trust.. taking lake bed samples to measure the depth of silt.

Nautical Archaeology divers in the Garden Lake, Stourhead

Nautical Archaeology divers in the Garden Lake, Stourhead

The Georgians were dab hands at water management and large bodies of water need regular monitoring. If the dam breaks it can cause mayhem down stream. Sometimes there’s not enough water and it has to be held back and conserved. Sometimes there’s far too much and spill-ways, drains and sluices are needed. At places like Prior Park, Bath and Dyrham South Gloucestershire, cascades were designed to make the excess water an aesthetic feature. A hatch is lifted a long metal rod is turned and the water flow regulated.

One of the dams at Prior Park recently repaired. The water is regulated using valves and sluices.

One of the dams at Prior Park recently repaired. The water is regulated using valves and sluices.

The flight of massive 18th century lakes at Woodchester, Gloucestershire blended landscape design with industry. Beside the upper lake was a brick kiln and further down the valley, the fall of water between the lakes enabled stone-lined traps to be built along the lake spill-ways to catch eels.

Below the Park Mill Lake. The mouth of the drain can be seen on the right and top left the dam spill-way to take excess water feeding into an eel trap before discharging into a pool.

Below the Park Mill Lake. The mouth of the drain can be seen on the right and top left the dam spill-way to take excess water feeding into an eel trap before discharging into a pool.

Park Mill was the name of the bottom lake. There was once a large flour mill where the corn was ground using the flow of the water from the dam to turn the grinding stones. We found one stone amongst wall footings during an archaeological excavation. The mill had been demolished in the 19th century and the site was found again when work was carried out on the dam to meet enhanced Environment Agency specifications.

Park Mill dam Woodchester. The water from the dam was regulated in the 18th century to drive a flour mill. The building has long gone but this mill stone was excavated on the site beside the footings of the building.

Park Mill dam Woodchester. The water from the dam was regulated in the 18th century to drive a flour mill. The building has long gone but this mill stone was excavated on the site beside the footings of the building.

The National Trust has been awarded Higher Level Stewardship funding which has enabled Woodchester’s lakes to be revealed again in their 18th century splendour. Take a trip there and prepare to be wowed.

Woodchester, Gloucestershire. A chain of lakes utilised both for beauty and industry.

Woodchester, Gloucestershire. A chain of lakes utilised both for beauty and industry.

Describing Dyrham

Mr Newman once started his English class with a matchbox. ‘What’s this’ he said. ‘It’s a matchbox sir’ said Justin. At 12 it seemed a reasonable answer to me. ‘Call that a description !’ he shouted and threw the matchbox at Justin. That was the lesson. We struggled with increasingly complex descriptions and the matchbox kept sailing across the classroom. Even at the end, the names of the children of the match maker and the exact chemical components of each match head still remained a mystery. Great lesson though….

And what of Dyrham South Gloucestershire, above Bath, just south of the M4?

Dyrham from the east. placed on the floor of a natural amphitheatre. The statue of Neptune in the foreground is one of the few visible surviving elements of William Blathwayt's original garden for the house. The formal elements were swept away to create a landscaped Capability-Brown style park in the later 18th cenutury.

Dyrham from the east. placed on the floor of a natural amphitheatre. The statue of Neptune in the foreground is one of the few visible surviving elements of William Blathwayt’s original garden for the house. The formal elements were swept away to create a landscaped Capability-Brown style park in the later 18th cenutury.

It’s a Baroque stately home built from 1691 for William Blathwayt influential member of William III’s Civil Service who laid out an intricate formal water garden in the fashionable Dutch style. ‘Call that a description!’

Schloss Charlottenburg Berlin, built 1695 (while Dyrham was being constructed) built for Sophie Charlotte, wife of Frederick III Elector of Brandonberg. The gardens near the house are maintained in the style that Dyrham's formal gardens originally had.

Schloss Charlottenburg Berlin, built 1695 (while Dyrham was being constructed) built for Sophie Charlotte, wife of Frederick III Elector of Brandonberg. The gardens near the house are maintained in the style that Dyrham’s formal gardens originally had.

Archaeologists look beneath the surface, they interrogate the clues in the landscape and know that places are far more interesting than the obvious.

Dyrham House is placed on the floor of a natural amphitheatre. A stream flows under the house and emerges as a cascade feeding two lakes in the west garden. Such a well sheltered and watered location, someone must have worked out that this would be a fine place to live long before the 17th century. Of course they did. There’s the medieval parish church beside the house. There have been many Dyrhams.

The perspective view of the Durch style gardens at Dyrham in 1712. Our excavations and geophysical surveys have proved some of the features in the drawing and found other elements which demonstrate later changes to the 1712 formal layout. The statue of Neptune can be seen top centre above a water cascade that flowed into a canal in front of the orangery on the right hand side of the mansion.

The perspective view of the Durch style gardens at Dyrham in 1712. Our excavations and geophysical surveys have proved some of the features in the drawing and found other elements which demonstrate later changes to the 1712 formal layout. The statue of Neptune can be seen top centre above a water cascade that flowed into a canal in front of the orangery on the right hand side of the mansion.

William Blathwayt married an heiress and used his money to knock down the old Tudor manor and build his stylish new mansion. Dyrham is mentioned in Domesday book of 1086 and there is a document describing the medieval house in some detail in 1415. As there was no surviving male heir it was split between two Denys daughters Isabel and Margaret and every building and room in the manor was described and awarded to one or other of the girls.

There’s a drawing of William’s redesigned Dyrham dated 1712 and it shows how intricate the garden and park were at the time. At the top of the slope to the east was a statue of Neptune and from here a great cascade of water flowed down towards the house feeding a long canal beside intricately designed garden beds framing paths, fountains and avenues. To enable the water works, a dam was built out of sight of the house to build up a head of water which was then channeled to Neptune.

Too much to maintain.. and it became unfashionable, so the whole thing was swept away in favour of a landscape park in Capability Brown style in the later 18th century. Only Neptune remains.

The 1712 drawing by Johannes Kipp seems too much to believe but in 2001-2 we looked beneath the grass in the West Garden and there was the entrance to the inner gate and the pitched stone path leading towards the west entrance of the mansion.

A small trench in the middle of the lawn in the west garden discovered the  gateway to the inner garden and the pitched stone straight entrance track leading to it. Bottom right is the central socket for holding the ornate double-leaved gates in place. Top left is a raised metal fixing for holding a gate in place when open. One of the stones had been part of a window reused from an earlier house.

A small trench in the middle of the lawn in the west garden discovered the gateway to the inner garden and the pitched stone straight entrance track leading to it. Bottom right is the central socket for holding the ornate double-leaved gates in place. Top left is a raised metal fixing for holding a gate in place when open. One of the stones had been part of a window reused from an earlier house.

We measured out another small trench and found the massive foundation for a statue where Kipp shows that a stone sphynx had been built as an eye-catcher in front of the stable block on the south side of the mansion.

The trench in the lawn in front of Dyrham's stables.  This found the footing for the sphynx statue shown on the 1712 drawing.

The trench in the lawn in front of Dyrham’s stables. This found the footing for the sphynx statue shown on the 1712 drawing.

The medieval church, perched on the north valley slope shows that the valley floor has been greatly altered to create Blathwayt’s garden. What survived of the earlier Dyrham’s?

Beside the house is the medieval parish church. The late 17th century mansion is the lates of several re-designed Dyrhams that the church has witnessed. Cutting trenches in the lower garden reveal fragments of medieval cooking pot jutting out of the soil.

Beside the house is the medieval parish church. The late 17th century mansion is the lates of several re-designed Dyrhams that the church has witnessed. Cutting trenches in the lower garden reveal fragments of medieval cooking pot jutting out of the soil.

We cut a trench in the grass on the slope leading down to the lower garden and there found chunks of medieval cooking pot and animal bone jutting out of the slope. Blathwayt’s designers had cut away the natural curve of the valley to create level gardens and in doing so removed much of the earlier medieval evidence. The village probably once ran up to the church.

Looking north-west across the lower west garden where the stream that runs under the house emerges as a waterfall feeding two lakes before it leaves the garden and continues through Dyrham village.

Looking north-west across the lower west garden where the stream that runs under the house emerges as a waterfall feeding two lakes before it leaves the garden and continues through Dyrham village.

A few years later the lakes in the lower garden were repaired and new paths were constructed and at this level even earlier occupation was found. Remains of a ditch and walling with fragments of Roman pottery, oyster shells and animal bones in it. A couple of sherds of pot are typical of the pre-Roman Iron Age.

An excavation to repair the lake wall and put in new paths revealed pre-medieval ditches and stone structures.

An excavation to repair the lake wall and put in new paths revealed pre-medieval ditches and stone structures.

So Dyrham has always been a good place to live and people have adapted it over thousands of years..

Fragments of Roman and Iron Age pottery found beside the lake at the lowest level of the garden.

Fragments of Roman and Iron Age pottery found beside the lake at the lowest level of the garden.

It was also once a place of great strategic importance. The earliest reference to this place comes from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. In AD 577 (very rare to have a place named this early in British history) the West Saxon king Ceawlin won a great victory over the British kings of Gloucester, Cirencester and Bath. This drove a wedge and caused a permanent split between the surviving British strongholds of Devon and Cornwall and Wales…

We have never found remains of the battle here though we looked carefully when the new car park was built at the top of the hill in 1999. Perhaps the last stand was within the fortifications of Hinton Hill Iron Age hillfort on the north side of Dyrham Park.

There is a lot more to be discovered to properly describe Dyrham but that’s the great thing about archaeology.. the description is never completely complete.

The games people play…

 

A bone domino with bronze pins to attach it to a thicker base, probably made from wood

A bone domino with bronze pins to attach it to a thicker base, probably made from wood

With football, tennis and cricket in full swing my mind turns to games. Not in terms of field games but more sedate board games and pastimes.

 Whether we are excavating trenches or looking under floorboards, we come across those lost counters, dice and cards from the games we probably all still play today. But some of the pieces may not be what we think, it is thought that they could also have been used as theater tickets, or counters for use  by accountants, and as tokens for gambling. Some of the objects like the domino above or playing cards are more obvious than the rounded stones, glass, pottery or bone objects.

Roman glass gaming counter

Roman glass gaming counter

We can be sure that this roman glass counter is for playing games, as a set of very similar counters were found on top of the remains of a board at Lullingstone roman villa, in  Kent. The pattern and colour of dots on each counter is different, but they do form two sets, the actual game is not known, but it is thought that it may have been something similar to backgammon.

Roman glass counter black with white and red marks

Roman glass counter black with white and red marks

 We only found this one the rest are probably still in the field scattered by many years of ploughing. From the same fields we found stone counters, one with decoration on the edge and thinner and finer than the other two.

The plain ones maybe counters from gambling games and the finer decorated one looks more like a board game piece.

Boards for these games can be wooden or scratched lines on stone or tiles. The wooden ones only survive in wet or very dry conditions and often only the metal corners survive in situ. 

Three stone counters or gaming pieces from the Kingston Lacy Estate
Three stone counters or gaming pieces from the Kingston Lacy Estate
clos up of decoration on the fine stone piece

close up of decoration on the fine stone piece

 

 

 

 

 

 

 At Chedworth roman villa there is one architectural stone
slab with an incised chequer board, in one corner. In the collection are a couple of possible gaming pieces or counters. There may have been more but if they were very basic objects they may not have been recognized by the Victorian excavators as interesting and worth keeping.

 We sometimes find die and dice on sites, often made from bone and in various sizes, they are always worth a more detailed look. Sometimes when bone dice are x-rayed you can see inserts of lead so that the roll of the die is effected, this suggests that they were probably used for gambling and by a cheat!

At Corfe Castle we excavated a very small bone die from the outer gate house guard chamber. We have not x-rayed it as it shows clearly its quirks! 

A very small bone die from Corfe Castle outer guard chamber

A very small bone die from Corfe Castle outer guard chamber

 

A drawing of the Corfe Castle bone die showing the alterations to the dot numbers

A drawing of the Corfe Castle bone die showing the alterations to the dot numbers

When you look closely at the dots you can see that it was probably a usual die that has been altered by adding dots, the side with six dots is the only one you cannot change, and five was the largest number that all the other sides could be changed to. Was it part of a dice game were other die had changed numbers or once again was it a way to cheat. The die is very small and if used inside the guard chamber it would have been dark and may not have shown up very well especially if the owner of the die had a good sleight of hand!

 

 

The Back Door: Chedworth Roman Villa

Chedworth Roman Villa is a great place to visit. It was built beside a spring at the head of a narrow valley with views out over the landscape, the building arranged around two courtyards.

It was first built about 1800 years ago but was a ruin 300 years later. Picked over for anything useful by the local farmers and then left and forgotten until rediscovered in the 1860s. James Farrer excavated it in 1864 (150 year anniversary celebrations at the villa this year). At that time, the surviving villa walls were built up, consolidated and displayed with some of the finest mosaics left open and protected under wooden cover buildings.

The Villa was at its architectural peak in the late 4th century. The best rooms were in the north and west ranges. Two suites of rooms each with their own set of baths beside the site of the fresh water spring where a sacred building was constructed known as a Nymphaeum. These luxurious ranges of rooms faced south and east and caught the best of the sunlight. High status visitors to the mansion would approach up the valley, perhaps through a gardened and designed landscape (see English Landscape Gardens and Roman Chedworth). They would walk through the inner courtyard and enter the centre of the West Range or perhaps turn right and walk into a large reception hall decorated with a mosaic with an intricate red and white design.

What about the rest? Was there a service entrance? We found this in 2011 when the new West Range cover building was being constructed.

Plan for a 1940s guide book for Chedworth villa. Top is the north range and left the west range. Here were two suites of sumptuous bathing, dining and accommodation rooms linked by corridors. The little understood service range is at the bottom of the picture. Bottom left is marked 'unexplored' and excavations here in the 1950s interpreted this area as a large kitchen.The little square room projecting from the bottom edge of the picture was the villa latrine. Top left is the 'Nymphaeum building around the villa sacred spring. The water flowed through the north and west range sets of baths south through drains across the courtyard to the south range to clean the latrines.

Plan for a 1940s guide book for Chedworth villa. Top is the north range and left the west range. Here were two suites of sumptuous bathing, dining and accommodation rooms linked by corridors. The little understood service range is at the bottom of the picture. Bottom left is marked ‘unexplored’ and excavations here in the 1950s interpreted this area as a large kitchen.The little square room projecting from the bottom edge of the picture was the villa latrine. Top left is the ‘Nymphaeum building around the villa sacred spring. The water flowed through the north and west range sets of baths south through drains across the courtyard to the south range to clean the latrines.

A pre-1950s guide map shows the areas where James Farrer didn’t excavate. One of these was in the south-west corner. The south range is poorly understood. It is set lower down the valley slope and doesn’t get the best sunlight. It seems to be where the service buildings were. Perhaps places where the servants hung out.. containing storage rooms and rooms for food preparation and administration.

In 1954 Eve Rutter from Oxford University, excavated a small square room that projected south of this range. It turned out to be a latrine. Drains leading from the spring would have run through the baths and the dirty water went through drains across the courtyard and sluiced out the loos down slope. All very practical and sensible. A couple of years later Sir Ian Richmond found a wall footing opposite the latrine and demonstrated that there was a short corridor there. The area immediately north of this was thought to be a large kitchen.

During the building of the west range cover building in 2011 archaeological recording was needed when new paths and service trenches were excavated.

During the building of the west range cover building in 2011 archaeological recording was needed when new paths and service trenches were excavated.

In 2011, the West Range cover building work needed new access paths and service trenches and I needed to come to Chedworth whenever new excavations were needed. Cotswold Archaeology had carried out some initial evaluation trenches and these had raised a question about the floor level of the Roman kitchen.

The view from the scaffolding on the West range looking south-east across the access path. The footings of the square building middle left mark the position of the Roman latrine

The view from the scaffolding on the West range looking south-east across the access path. The footings of the square building middle left mark the position of the Roman latrine

The South Range as far, as we know it, has a series of rooms stepping down the slope of the valley to the east. At the west end, Meirion’s 1m square evaluation trench had found a level mortar floor but this was above the level of the modern access path. So Simon and I were asked to dig a slot along the south wall of the kitchen so that the architect was able to know the right levels to display floors and create paths.

 trench along the south-west side of the kitchen was to understand the Roman floor level. In the south-west corner the cement floor is well preserved but it has been cut away when the villa was demolished and the ground slopes down to visitor access path from where the photo was taken.

trench along the south-west side of the kitchen was to understand the Roman floor level. In the south-west corner the cement floor is well preserved but it has been cut away when the villa was demolished and the ground slopes down to visitor access path from where the photo was taken.

Our trench found Victorian pottery from the 1864 excavation mixed with some Roman rubble. We found that the Roman kitchen floor had been dug away on its east side during the villa’s demolition, exposing mortared rubble make-up for the lost floor.

Areas of Roman demolition rubble were found above the old ground service and large fragments of meat bones and Roman tile were found including Aimee's chunk of flue tile.

Areas of Roman demolition rubble were found above the old ground service and large fragments of meat bones and Roman tile were found including Aimee’s chunk of flue tile.

A couple of months later, the new access path was being laid further east so I came to take out the material affected by the path. This followed the old line from the visitor reception beside the latrine north towards the West Range.

The unexcavated rubble left where it fell for 1500 years as the villa fell into decay.

The unexcavated rubble left where it fell for 1500 years as the villa fell into decay.

I came across a strip of unexcavated Roman rubble. No Victorian pot this time but large chunks of Roman tile, oyster shells and meat bones. Below this were flat slates of stone which had settled onto a level graveled surface and this sloped gently upwards towards the West Range. Always a great feeling in archaeological terms when you are troweling and the lumpy rubble peels onto a surface and it’s in the thin band of buried soil trampled into the surface where the finds are made. These date the last footfall along the path or across the floor. Crushed fragments of black Roman pottery on this occasion.

The rubble peeled off onto an inclined plane marking the position of the path from the back door into the service range, latrine and kitchen.

The rubble peeled off onto an inclined plane marking the position of the path from the back door into the service range, latrine and kitchen.

So the kitchen was half the size we had thought it was and on its east side was a path that led up into the service range beside the latrine. It’s the way all the visitors come into the Villa today. We all come in through the service entrance, the back door. Sorry about that, Lord Eldon built his Victorian lodge and museum across the Roman posh way in.

The completed West Range cover building. Important Roman guests would have entered the centre of the West Range where there is an open door in the photo. We all enter via the back door which is beside the hedge top left of the picture.

The completed West Range cover building. Important Roman guests would have entered the centre of the West Range where there is an open door in the photo. We all enter via the back door which is beside the hedge top left of the picture.